Diabetes the complete Guide: Types, causes, symptoms, complications and Treatments(natural & conventional)

Diabetes mellitus

My diabetes is such a central part of my life… it did teach me discipline… it also taught me about moderation… I’ve trained myself to be super-vigilant… because I feel better when I am in control.

According to the World Health Organization, Approximately 8.8% of the worldwide population has diabetes Which nearly twice as it was in the 1980 (4.7%) and this number tends to rise Every year…That’s huge isn’t it.

diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death with 252,806 death in the US, that Diabetes is The underline or a contributing cause of death in 2015 and 30.3 million Americans with 7.2 million of them are undiagnosed and 1.4 million the type 1 of diabetes.

This makes 9.4% of Americans have diabetes This Percentage get higher among people with the age of 65 and older Which can reach 25.2% that’s mean one in four people over the age of 65 I have diabetes.

this huge number cost the US huge numbers too, 245 billion dollar is the total cost of diagnosed diabetes in the US in 2012.


  • what is diabetes?
  • What are the different types of diabetes?
  • what are the causes & risk factors for diabetes?
  • what are the signs and symptoms of diabetes?
  • what are the different treatments for diabetes?

What is diabetes (diabetes mellitus)?

diabetes or (“diabetes mellitus” Which is just a fancy scientific name of diabetes) is a chronic disease that is about some sort of failure in the body system that processes blood sugar or glucose from the bloodstream to cells which lead to an Overstock of glucose in the blood or hyperglycemia.

Depending on the nature of the failure Two types of diabetes are Defined.

What are the different types of diabetes?

there are two types of diabetes the most common one is:

  • type 2 diabetes: Over 90% of Adults with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes Also known as non-insulin-dependent, adult-onset were the body cells and tissues have an insulin resistance That makes the pancreas to produce more insulin to stabilize blood sugar to the normal levels and overtime It will not be able to produce more insulin.
  • Type 1 diabetes: is commonly known as insulin-dependent or childhood-diabetes because it’s commonly developed at a younger age (before 20) were the production of insulin is too low or no production at all.

the cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown but some medical association classifies it as an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin

  • Gestational diabetes: it occurs during pregnancy were the blood sugar level is above normal and below being considered diabetes.

During pregnancy women with gestational diabetes have some diabetes complication.

  •  Impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) or impaired fasting glycemia (IFG): they are pre-diabetes types which are a condition between being normal and having diabetes.

now after we’ve Defined the different types of diabetes Let us explore the different causes and risk factor of diabetes.

What are the causes and risk factors for diabetes?

Causes of diabetes type 1:

causes of Diabetes Type 1 Is usually unknown but scientists say that the immune system is attacking the beta cells that are in charge to produce insulin in the pancreas. This disorder in the immune system is often caused by genes and other factors such as Viruses, especially the genetically modified viruses.

Causes of diabetes type 2:

In opposite of Diabetes Type 1, is possible to prevent Diabetes Type 2.

diabetes type 2 can be caused by:

  • insulin resistance: diabetes type 2 usually begins by a resistance to insulin by body organs where body tissues don’t use properly. or can say that insulin resistance = diabetes type 2.
  • Hormonal disease: uncontrolled production of some hormones can cause insulin resistance and diabetes(Cushing’s syndrome, Acromegaly, Hyperthyroidism).
  • Medicines: certain medicines can disturb or harm the beta cells that produce insulin:
  • niacin, a type of vitamin B3
  • certain types of diuretics also called water pills.
  • anti-seizure drugs.
  • psychiatric drugs.
  • drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV )
  • pentamidine.
  • glucocorticoids—medicines used to treat inflammatory illnesses
  • anti-rejection medicines.
  • Statins used to lower (LDL) cholesterol level.
  • Genetics diseases.
  • damage or removal of the pancreas.

Diabetes Type 2 Risk Factors:

people with one the following conditions are more likely to have diabetes.

  1. overweight or obesity: being overweight or obese can sometimes lead to several cardiovascular problems not just diabetes type 2 by causing insulin resistance. but it can lead to heart disease, High blood pressure, and kidneys problems.
  2. Family history: people with a diabetes family history tend to have diabetes too.
  3. age: people over the age.
  4. High Blood Pressure.
  5. physical inactivity.
  6. depression.
  7. ethnicity: Native Americans Indians, African Americans, Hispanic Americans have the highest risk.

daibetes type 2 causes infographic

signs and symptoms of diabetes

people with diabetes type 2 may not notice that they even have it. because it often developed slowly (years) in the opposite of diabetes Type 1.

The effect of having an excess of glucose in blood may cause:

  • Blurry or unclear vision.
  • Extrême fatigue or Tiredness.
  • Extreme thirst.
  • Going to the bathroom more often than usual.
  • Slower healing infections.
  • Always Hungry.
  • Numbness or tingling in hands or feet.
  • sexual Problems.

if you have any of the signs mentioned before. it’s important to get screened in order to confirm whether you have or haven’t diabetes.

diabetes symptoms

the early you know the better.

so how to diagnosis whether you have diabetes or not?

Diabetes Screening

There are several tests that you can perform to diagnosis diabetes text with your phone twice in two different days in order to get to the information needed to tell whether you have or haven’t diabetes:

  • A1C: Stands for hemoglobin A1C. This test indicates how your blood sugar is controlled over time (2 to 3 months before you do the test).

For normal people A1C is under 6.5% but if you have an A1C higher than 6.5% that could mean that you have diabetes.

  • FPG: It stands for fasting plasma glucose also known as fasting blood sugar this test measures the amount of sugar in the blood the moment of a test.

FBG test is performed after you haven’t eaten for at least 8 to 10 hour.

The American Diabetes Association recommend keeping your FBG between 80 and 130 mg/dl.

For people with no diabetes, this test returns a number that is less than 126 mg/dl.

Again, if you have a result equal or higher than 126 mg/dl that could mean diabetes.

  • RPG: Stands for random plasma glucose this test can be performed at any point of the day to measure the amount of sugar in the blood.

 if your RPG is equal or higher than 200 mg/dl that could mean diabetes.

  • OGTT: Oral glucose tolerance test this test is designed to tell how your blood processing sugar.

Your blood sugar is tested before and after 2 to 3 hour You drink a sweet drink given to you by your doctor.

if the results are equal or greater than 200 mg/dl. that means your body couldn’t process or stabilize the blood sugar. which mean diabetes.

  • PPG: Postprandial plasma glucose is a test that measures the effect of a particular meal (Breakfast, lunch, snack, Dinner…) on your blood sugar level, and it’s taken after 1 to 2 hours of a meal.

the ADA recommends keeping the PPG level below 180 mg/dl.


According to the center for disease statistics around 86million Americans have prediabetes.

Prediabetes is a health condition that can lead to diabetes:

If the previous tests return the following results:

  • A1C: between 5.7 and 6.4%.
  • FPG: between 100 and 126 mg/dl

Currently, there is no medication to treat prediabetes. But following a healthy lifestyle by exercising and eating healthy foods can prevent prediabetes from being diabetes.

Diabetes effects and complications

Excess blood sugar affects blood vessels and nerves All over the body All over the body that’s why In managing diabetes can lead to health complications like:

  • Diabetic neuropathy: Nerves Damages from diabetes which can result in loss of sensation in the damaged areas like your legs.
  • Diabetic nephropathy: This is a diabetic complication that affects kidneys. which over time it could lead them to fail.
  • Retinopathy is an eye problem can be caused by diabetes, which effect retina in the back of the eye, retinopathy causes loss of vision over time.
  • Heart attack: People with diabetes is likely to have heart problems twice as people with no diabetes.
  • stroke: Chances to have a stroke if you have diabetes, is twice as someone with no diabetes.
  • Diabetic Foot Infections.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): it happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.


Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person’s breath may develop a specific smell.

Diabetes treatments

diabetes treatments work by preventing complications and reversing diabetes if it’s possible. there are two approaches for that the natural (the best) and the conventional where your doctor prescribe some medicines and suggest a change in lifestyle…

How to reverse diabetes naturally in 3 steps:

  • avoid these types of Foods:

Sugar: or refined sugar can increase your blood sugar level significantly, also fruit juice, soda or any other sugary foods must be avoided.

Alcohol: alcohol beside that it can increase your blood sugar level to dangerous levels, it can damage your liver which makes your diabetes situation worst.

Genetically modified (GM) foods: avoiding GM and packaged foods not just help your organs to recover its insulin sensitivity but also it with preventing you from having GM foods related diseases.

White rice: Basically anything highly processed, fried, and made with white flour should be avoided instead: Brown rice or wild rice don’t cause the same blood spike.

Bananas and melons: can cause blood glucose to increase due to the sugar that they contain reducing the among of Bananas, melons, and stone fruits like peaches and nectarines in your diet may be beneficial.

French fries: because of high carbohydrate content french fries and fast food in general must be avoided despite the fact that they are tasty.

regular cow’s milk: conventional dairy products should be avoided. in opposite dairy that comes from goats, desert camels, pasture-raised cows can be good to stabilize blood sugar.

Hydrogenated oils: Peanut Oil, Corn Oil, Cottonseed Oil, vegetable oil, soybean oil,  canola oil has to be removed from your diet. Hydrogenated oils may cause health risks including diabetes.

  • include these types of foods in your diet to reverse diabetes(or prevent prediabetes to become diabetes)

Apple cider vinegar:

high fibers Foods:

Magnesium-rich foods:

Foods with a low glycemic load:

Supplement to include in your diet:

Alpha Lipoic Acid:

Alpha Lipoic Acid 


Omega-3 or (fish oil):

  • Follow a regular exercising program:


Diabetes pills:

There are several types of diabetes pills available that your doctor may give you in the prescription. each one has its mechanism of work In the body. Most of the diabetes pills are designed to prevent complications that can be caused by diabetes and control Blood sugars.

    • SGLT2 inhibitors: It prevents kidneys from reabsorbing sugar.
    • Biguanides/Metformin.
    • DPP-4 inhibitors
    • Thiazolidinediones (TZDs).
    • Meglitinides/Sulfonylureas:

The four diabetes pills listed above work by either :

  1. stop or slow the lever release extra sugar
  2. help the pancreas to release more insulin
  3. Lower insulin resistance, to help increase the amount of sugar that the body tissue takes in.
  4. There are other medicines that are not available as pills, like insulin that must be injected into the body
  5. or a combination of them.

But in some cases, the patient will have to inject insulin directly into his bloodstream using pen device, Vial, and syringe or insulins pomps.

insulin injection is often used by people with diabetes type 1 and advance type 2 diabetes.



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